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veb #

veb - the V Web Server

A simple yet powerful web server with built-in routing, parameter handling, templating, and other features.

Features

  • Very fast performance of C on the web.
  • Templates are precompiled all errors are visible at compilation time, not at runtime.
  • Middleware functionality similar to other big frameworks.
  • Controllers to split up your apps logic.
  • Easy to deploy just one binary file that also includes all templates. No need to install anydependencies.

Quick Start

Run your veb app with a live reload via v -d vweb_livereload watch run .

Now modifying any file in your web app (whether it's a .v file with the backend logic or a compiled .html template file) will result in an instant refresh of your app in the browser. No need to quit the app, rebuild it, and refresh the page in the browser!

Deploying veb apps

All the code, including HTML templates, is in one binary file. That's all you need to deploy. Use the -prod flag when building for production.

Getting Started

To start, you must import the module veb and define a structure which will represent your app and a structure which will represent the context of a request. These structures must be declared with the pub keyword.

Example:

module main

import veb

pub struct User {
pub mut:
    name string
    id   int
}

// Our context struct must embed `veb.Context`!
pub struct Context {
    veb.Context
pub mut:
    // In the context struct we store data that could be different
    // for each request. Like a User struct or a session id
    user       User
    session_id string
}

pub struct App {
pub:
    // In the app struct we store data that should be accessible by all endpoints.
    // For example, a database or configuration values.
    secret_key string
}

// This is how endpoints are defined in veb. This is the index route
pub fn (app &App) index(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('Hello V! The secret key is "${app.secret_key}"')
}

fn main() {
    mut app := &App{
        secret_key: 'secret'
    }
    // Pass the App and context type and start the web server on port 8080
    veb.run[App, Context](mut app, 8080)
}

You can use the App struct for data you want to keep during the lifetime of your program, or for data that you want to share between different routes.

A new Context struct is created every time a request is received, so it can contain different data for each request.

Defining endpoints

To add endpoints to your web server, you must extend the App struct. For routing you can either use auto-mapping of function names or specify the path as an attribute. The function expects a parameter of your Context type and a response of the type veb.Result.

Example:

// This endpoint can be accessed via http://server:port/hello
pub fn (app &App) hello(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('Hello')
}

// This endpoint can be accessed via http://server:port/foo
@['/foo']
pub fn (app &App) world(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('World')
}

HTTP verbs

To use any HTTP verbs (or methods, as they are properly called), such as @[post], @[get], @[put], @[patch] or @[delete] you can simply add the attribute before the function definition.

Example:

// only GET requests to http://server:port/world are handled by this method
@[get]
pub fn (app &App) world(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('World')
}

// only POST requests to http://server:port/product/create are handled by this method
@['/product/create'; post]
pub fn (app &App) create_product(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('product')
}

By default, endpoints are marked as GET requests only. It is also possible to add multiple HTTP verbs per endpoint.

Example:

// only GET and POST requests to http://server:port/login are handled by this method
@['/login'; get; post]
pub fn (app &App) login(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    if ctx.req.method == .get {
        // show the login page on a GET request
        return ctx.html('<h1>Login page</h1><p>todo: make form</p>')
    } else {
        // request method is POST
        password := ctx.form['password']
        // validate password length
        if password.len < 12 {
            return ctx.text('password is too weak!')
        } else {
            // we receive a POST request, so we want to explicitly tell the browser
            // to send a GET request to the profile page.
            return ctx.redirect('/profile')
        }
    }
}

Routes with Parameters

Parameters are passed directly to an endpoint route using the colon sign :. The route parameters are passed as arguments. V will cast the parameter to any of V's primitive types (string, int etc,).

To pass a parameter to an endpoint, you simply define it inside an attribute, e. g. @['/hello/:user]. After it is defined in the attribute, you have to add it as a function parameter.

Example:

// V will pass the parameter 'user' as a string
          vvvv
@['/hello/:user']                             vvvv
pub fn (app &App) hello_user(mut ctx Context, user string) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('Hello ${user}')
}

// V will pass the parameter 'id' as an int
              vv
@['/document/:id']                              vv
pub fn (app &App) get_document(mut ctx Context, id int) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('Hello ${user}')
}

If we visit http://localhost:port/hello/vaesel we would see the text Hello vaesel.

Routes with Parameter Arrays

If you want multiple parameters in your route and if you want to parse the parameters yourself, or you want a wildcard route, you can add ... after the : and name, e.g. @['/:path...'].

This will match all routes after '/'. For example, the url /path/to/test would give path = '/path/to/test'.

         vvv
@['/:path...']                              vvvv
pub fn (app &App) wildcard(mut ctx Context, path string) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('URL path = "${path}"')
}

Query, Form and Files

You have direct access to query values by accessing the query field on your context struct. You are also able to access any formdata or files that were sent with the request with the fields .form and .files respectively.

In the following example, visiting http://localhost:port/user?name=veb we will see the text Hello veb!. And if we access the route without the name parameter, http://localhost:port/user, we will see the text no user was found,

Example:

@['/user'; get]
pub fn (app &App) get_user_by_id(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    user_name := ctx.query['name'] or {
        // we can exit early and send a different response if no `name` parameter was passed
        return ctx.text('no user was found')
    }

    return ctx.text('Hello ${user_name}!')
}

Host

To restrict an endpoint to a specific host, you can use the host attribute followed by a colon : and the host name. You can test the Host feature locally by adding a host to the "hosts" file of your device.

Example:

@['/'; host: 'example.com']
pub fn (app &App) hello_web(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return app.text('Hello World')
}

@['/'; host: 'api.example.org']
pub fn (app &App) hello_api(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('Hello API')
}

// define the handler without a host attribute last if you have conflicting paths.
@['/']
pub fn (app &App) hello_others(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('Hello Others')
}

You can also create a controller to handle all requests from a specific host in one app struct.

Route Matching Order

veb will match routes in the order that you define endpoints.

Example:

@['/:path']
pub fn (app &App) with_parameter(mut ctx Context, path string) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('from with_parameter, path: "${path}"')
}

@['/normal']
pub fn (app &App) normal(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('from normal')
}

In this example we defined an endpoint with a parameter first. If we access our app on the url http://localhost:port/normal we will not see from normal, but from with_parameter, path: "normal".

Custom not found page

You can implement a not_found endpoint that is called when a request is made, and no matching route is found to replace the default HTTP 404 not found page. This route has to be defined on our Context struct.

Example:

pub fn (mut ctx Context) not_found() veb.Result {
    // set HTTP status 404
    ctx.res.set_status(.not_found)
    return ctx.html('<h1>Page not found!</h1>')
}

Static files and website

veb also provides a way of handling static files. We can mount a folder at the root of our web app, or at a custom route. To start using static files we have to embed veb.StaticHandler on our app struct.

Example:

Let's say you have the following file structure:

.

If we want all the documents inside the static sub-directory to be publicly accessible, we can use handle_static.

Note: > veb will recursively search the folder you mount; all the files inside that folder > will be publicly available.

main.v

module main

import veb

pub struct Context {
    veb.Context
}

pub struct App {
    veb.StaticHandler
}

fn main() {
    mut app := &App{}

    app.handle_static('static', false)!

    veb.run[App, Context](mut app, 8080)
}

If we start the app with v run main.v we can access our main.css file at http://localhost:8080/static/css/main.css

Mounting folders at specific locations

In the previous example the folder static was mounted at /static. We could also choose to mount the static folder at the root of our app: everything inside the static folder is available at /.

Example:

// change the second argument to `true` to mount a folder at the app root
app.handle_static('static', true)!

We can now access main.css directly at http://localhost:8080/css/main.css.

If a request is made to the root of a static folder, veb will look for an index.html or ├Čndex.htm file and serve it if available. Thus, it's also a good way to host a complete website. An example is available here.

It is also possible to mount the static folder at a custom path.

Example:

// mount the folder 'static' at path '/public', the path has to start with '/'
app.mount_static_folder_at('static', '/public')

If we run our app the main.css file is available at http://localhost:8080/public/main.css

Adding a single static asset

If you don't want to mount an entire folder, but only a single file, you can use serve_static.

Example:

// serve the `main.css` file at '/path/main.css'
app.serve_static('/path/main.css',  'static/css/main.css')!

Dealing with MIME types

By default, veb will map the extension of a file to a MIME type. If any of your static file's extensions do not have a default MIME type in veb, veb will throw an error and you have to add your MIME type to .static_mime_types yourself.

Example:

Let's say you have the following file structure:

.
app.handle_static('static', true)!

This code will throw an error, because veb has no default MIME type for a .what file extension.

unknown MIME type for file extension '.what'

To fix this we have to provide a MIME type for the .what file extension:

app.static_mime_types['.what'] = 'txt/plain'
app.handle_static('static', true)!

Middleware

Middleware in web development is (loosely defined) a hidden layer that sits between what a user requests (the HTTP Request) and what a user sees (the HTTP Response). We can use this middleware layer to provide "hidden" functionality to our apps endpoints.

To use veb's middleware we have to embed veb.Middleware on our app struct and provide the type of which context struct should be used.

Example:

pub struct App {
    veb.Middleware[Context]
}

Use case

We could, for example, get the cookies for an HTTP request and check if the user has already accepted our cookie policy. Let's modify our Context struct to store whether the user has accepted our policy or not.

Example:

pub struct Context {
    veb.Context
pub mut:
    has_accepted_cookies bool
}

In veb middleware functions take a mut parameter with the type of your context struct and must return bool. We have full access to modify our Context struct!

The return value indicates to veb whether it can continue or has to stop. If we send a response to the client in a middleware function veb has to stop, so we return false.

Example:

pub fn check_cookie_policy(mut ctx Context) bool {
    // get the cookie
    cookie_value := ctx.get_cookie('accepted_cookies') or { '' }
    // check if the cookie has been set
    if cookie_value == 'true' {
        ctx.has_accepted_cookies = true
    }
    // we don't send a response, so we must return true
    return true
}

We can check this value in an endpoint and return a different response.

Example:

@['/only-cookies']
pub fn (app &App) only_cookie_route(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    if ctx.has_accepted_cookies {
        return ctx.text('Welcome!')
    } else {
        return ctx.text('You must accept the cookie policy!')
    }
}

There is one thing left for our middleware to work: we have to register our only_cookie_route function as middleware for our app. We must do this after the app is created and before the app is started.

Example:

fn main() {
    mut app := &App{}

    // register middleware for all routes
    app.use(handler: only_cookie_route)

    // Pass the App and context type and start the web server on port 8080
    veb.run[App, Context](mut app, 8080)
}

Types of middleware

In the previous example we used so called "global" middleware. This type of middleware applies to every endpoint defined on our app struct; global. It is also possible to register middleware for only a certain route(s).

Example:

// register middleware only for the route '/auth'
app.route_use('/auth', handler: auth_middleware)
// register middleware only for the route '/documents/' with a parameter
// e.g. '/documents/5'
app.route_use('/documents/:id')
// register middleware with a parameter array. The middleware will be registered
// for all routes that start with '/user/' e.g. '/user/profile/update'
app.route_use('/user/:path...')

Evaluation moment

By default, the registered middleware functions are executed before a method on your app struct is called. You can also change this behaviour to execute middleware functions after a method on your app struct is called, but before the response is sent!

Example:

pub fn modify_headers(mut ctx Context) bool {
    // add Content-Language: 'en-US' header to each response
    ctx.res.header.add(.content_language, 'en-US')
    return true
}
app.use(handler: modify_headers, after: true)

When to use which type

You could use "before" middleware to check and modify the HTTP request and you could use "after" middleware to validate the HTTP response that will be sent or do some cleanup.

Anything you can do in "before" middleware, you can do in "after" middleware.

Evaluation order

veb will handle requests in the following order:

  1. Execute global "before" middleware
  2. Execute "before" middleware that matches the requested route
  3. Execute the endpoint handler on your app struct
  4. Execute global "after" middleware
  5. Execute "after" middleware that matches the requested route

In each step, except for step 3, veb will evaluate the middleware in the order that they are registered; when you call app.use or app.route_use.

Early exit

If any middleware sends a response (and thus must return false) veb will not execute any other middleware, or the endpoint method, and immediately send the response.

Example:

pub fn early_exit(mut ctx Context) bool {
    ctx.text('early exit')
    // we send a response from middleware, so we have to return false
    return false
}

pub fn logger(mut ctx Context) bool {
    println('received request for "${ctx.req.url}"')
    return true
}
app.use(handler: early_exit)
app.use(handler: logger)

Because we register early_exit before logger our logging middleware will never be executed!

Controllers

Controllers can be used to split up your app logic so you are able to have one struct per "route group". E.g. a struct Admin for urls starting with '/admin' and a struct Foo for urls starting with '/foo'.

To use controllers we have to embed veb.Controller on our app struct and when we register a controller we also have to specify what the type of the context struct will be. That means that it is possible to have a different context struct for each controller and the main app struct.

Example:

module main

import veb

pub struct Context {
    veb.Context
}

pub struct App {
    veb.Controller
}

// this endpoint will be available at '/'
pub fn (app &App) index(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('from app')
}

pub struct Admin {}

// this endpoint will be available at '/admin/'
pub fn (app &Admin) index(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('from admin')
}

pub struct Foo {}

// this endpoint will be available at '/foo/'
pub fn (app &Foo) index(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('from foo')
}

fn main() {
    mut app := &App{}

    // register the controllers the same way as how we start a veb app
    mut admin_app := &Admin{}
    app.register_controller[Admin, Context]('/admin', mut admin_app)!

    mut foo_app := &Foo{}
    app.register_controller[Foo, Context]('/foo', mut foo_app)!

    veb.run[App, Context](mut app, 8080)
}

You can do everything with a controller struct as with a regular App struct. Register middleware, add static files and you can even register other controllers!

Routing

Any route inside a controller struct is treated as a relative route to its controller namespace.

@['/path']
pub fn (app &Admin) path(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('Admin')
}

When we registered the controller with app.register_controller[Admin, Context]('/admin', mut admin_app)! we told veb that the namespace of that controller is '/admin' so in this example we would see the text "Admin" if we navigate to the url '/admin/path'.

veb doesn't support duplicate routes, so if we add the following route to the example the code will produce an error.

@['/admin/path']
pub fn (app &App) admin_path(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('Admin overwrite')
}

There will be an error, because the controller Admin handles all routes starting with '/admin': the endpoint admin_path is unreachable.

Controller with hostname

You can also set a host for a controller. All requests coming to that host will be handled by the controller.

Example:

struct Example {}

// You can only access this route at example.com: http://example.com/
pub fn (app &Example) index(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('Example')
}
mut example_app := &Example{}
// set the controllers hostname to 'example.com' and handle all routes starting with '/',
// we handle requests with any route to 'example.com'
app.register_controller[Example, Context]('example.com', '/', mut example_app)!

Context Methods

veb has a number of utility methods that make it easier to handle requests and send responses. These methods are available on veb.Context and directly on your own context struct if you embed veb.Context. Below are some of the most used methods, look at the standard library documentation to see them all.

Request methods

You can directly access the HTTP request on the .req field.

Get request headers

Example:

pub fn (app &App) index(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    content_length := ctx.get_header(.content_length) or { '0' }
    // get custom header
    custom_header := ctx.get_custom_header('X-HEADER') or { '' }
    // ...
}

Get a cookie

Example:

pub fn (app &App) index(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    cookie_val := ctx.get_cookie('token') or { '' }
    // ...
}

Response methods

You can directly modify the HTTP response by changing the res field, which is of the type http.Response.

Send response with different MIME types

// send response HTTP_OK with content-type `text/html`
ctx.html('<h1>Hello world!</h1>')
// send response HTTP_OK with content-type `text/plain`
ctx.text('Hello world!')
// stringify the object and send response HTTP_OK with content-type `application/json`
ctx.json(User{
    name: 'test'
    age: 20
})

Sending files

Example:

pub fn (app &App) file_response(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    // send the file 'image.png' in folder 'data' to the user
    return ctx.file('data/image.png')
}

Set response headers

Example:

pub fn (app &App) index(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    ctx.set_header(.accept, 'text/html')
    // set custom header
    ctx.set_custom_header('X-HEADER', 'my-value')!
    // ...
}

Set a cookie

Example:

pub fn (app &App) index(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    ctx.set_cookie(http.Cookie{
        name: 'token'
        value: 'true'
        path: '/'
        secure: true
        http_only: true
    })
    // ...
}

Redirect

You must pass the type of redirect to veb:

  • moved_permanently HTTP code 301
  • found HTTP code 302
  • see_other HTTP code 303
  • temporary_redirect HTTP code 307
  • permanent_redirect HTTP code 308

Common use cases:

If you want to change the request method, for example when you receive a post request and want to redirect to another page via a GET request, you should use see_other. If you want the HTTP method to stay the same, you should use found generally speaking.

Example:

pub fn (app &App) index(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    token := ctx.get_cookie('token') or { '' }
    if token == '' {
        // redirect the user to '/login' if the 'token' cookie is not set
        // we explicitly tell the browser to send a GET request
        return ctx.redirect('/login', typ: .see_other)
    } else {
        return ctx.text('Welcome!')
    }
}

Sending error responses

Example:

pub fn (app &App) login(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    if username := ctx.form['username'] {
        return ctx.text('Hello "${username}"')
    } else {
        // send an HTTP 400 Bad Request response with a message
        return ctx.request_error('missing form value "username"')
    }
}

You can also use ctx.server_error(msg string) to send an HTTP 500 internal server error with a message.

Advanced usage

If you need more control over the TCP connection with a client, for example when you want to keep the connection open. You can call ctx.takeover_conn.

When this function is called you are free to do anything you want with the TCP connection and veb will not interfere. This means that we are responsible for sending a response over the connection and closing it.

Empty Result

Sometimes you want to send the response in another thread, for example when using Server Sent Events. When you are sure that a response will be sent over the TCP connection you can return veb.no_result(). This function does nothing and returns an empty veb.Result struct, letting veb know that we sent a response ourselves.

Note: > It is important to call ctx.takeover_conn before you spawn a thread

Example:

module main

import net
import time
import veb

pub struct Context {
    veb.Context
}

pub struct App {}

pub fn (app &App) index(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    return ctx.text('hello!')
}

@['/long']
pub fn (app &App) long_response(mut ctx Context) veb.Result {
    // let veb know that the connection should not be closed
    ctx.takeover_conn()
    // use spawn to handle the connection in another thread
    // if we don't the whole web server will block for 10 seconds,
    // since veb is singlethreaded
    spawn handle_connection(mut ctx.conn)
    // we will send a custom response ourselves, so we can safely return an empty result
    return veb.no_result()
}

fn handle_connection(mut conn net.TcpConn) {
    defer {
        conn.close() or {}
    }
    // block for 10 second
    time.sleep(time.second * 10)
    conn.write_string('HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\nContent-type: text/html\r\nContent-length: 15\r\n\r\nHello takeover!') or {}
}

fn main() {
    mut app := &App{}
    veb.run[App, Context](mut app, 8080)
}

Constants #

const default_port = 8080
const max_http_post_size = 1024 * 1024
const mime_types = {
	'.aac':    'audio/aac'
	'.abw':    'application/x-abiword'
	'.arc':    'application/x-freearc'
	'.avi':    'video/x-msvideo'
	'.azw':    'application/vnd.amazon.ebook'
	'.bin':    'application/octet-stream'
	'.bmp':    'image/bmp'
	'.bz':     'application/x-bzip'
	'.bz2':    'application/x-bzip2'
	'.cda':    'application/x-cdf'
	'.csh':    'application/x-csh'
	'.css':    'text/css'
	'.csv':    'text/csv'
	'.doc':    'application/msword'
	'.docx':   'application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document'
	'.eot':    'application/vnd.ms-fontobject'
	'.epub':   'application/epub+zip'
	'.gz':     'application/gzip'
	'.gif':    'image/gif'
	'.htm':    'text/html'
	'.html':   'text/html'
	'.ico':    'image/vnd.microsoft.icon'
	'.ics':    'text/calendar'
	'.jar':    'application/java-archive'
	'.jpeg':   'image/jpeg'
	'.jpg':    'image/jpeg'
	'.js':     'text/javascript'
	'.json':   'application/json'
	'.jsonld': 'application/ld+json'
	'.mid':    'audio/midi audio/x-midi'
	'.midi':   'audio/midi audio/x-midi'
	'.mjs':    'text/javascript'
	'.mp3':    'audio/mpeg'
	'.mp4':    'video/mp4'
	'.mpeg':   'video/mpeg'
	'.mpkg':   'application/vnd.apple.installer+xml'
	'.odp':    'application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.presentation'
	'.ods':    'application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.spreadsheet'
	'.odt':    'application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.text'
	'.oga':    'audio/ogg'
	'.ogv':    'video/ogg'
	'.ogx':    'application/ogg'
	'.opus':   'audio/opus'
	'.otf':    'font/otf'
	'.png':    'image/png'
	'.pdf':    'application/pdf'
	'.php':    'application/x-httpd-php'
	'.ppt':    'application/vnd.ms-powerpoint'
	'.pptx':   'application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation'
	'.rar':    'application/vnd.rar'
	'.rtf':    'application/rtf'
	'.sh':     'application/x-sh'
	'.svg':    'image/svg+xml'
	'.swf':    'application/x-shockwave-flash'
	'.tar':    'application/x-tar'
	'.tif':    'image/tiff'
	'.tiff':   'image/tiff'
	'.ts':     'video/mp2t'
	'.ttf':    'font/ttf'
	'.txt':    'text/plain'
	'.vsd':    'application/vnd.visio'
	'.wasm':   'application/wasm'
	'.wav':    'audio/wav'
	'.weba':   'audio/webm'
	'.webm':   'video/webm'
	'.webp':   'image/webp'
	'.woff':   'font/woff'
	'.woff2':  'font/woff2'
	'.xhtml':  'application/xhtml+xml'
	'.xls':    'application/vnd.ms-excel'
	'.xlsx':   'application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet'
	'.xml':    'application/xml'
	'.xul':    'application/vnd.mozilla.xul+xml'
	'.zip':    'application/zip'
	'.3gp':    'video/3gpp'
	'.3g2':    'video/3gpp2'
	'.7z':     'application/x-7z-compressed'
	'.m3u8':   'application/vnd.apple.mpegurl'
}
const http_500 = http.new_response(
	status: .internal_server_error
	body: '500 Internal Server Error'
	header: http.new_header(
		key: .content_type
		value: 'text/plain'
	).join(headers_close)
)
const http_413 = http.new_response(
	status: .request_entity_too_large
	body: '413 Request entity is too large'
	header: http.new_header(
		key: .content_type
		value: 'text/plain'
	).join(headers_close)
)
const http_408 = http.new_response(
	status: .request_timeout
	body: '408 Request Timeout'
	header: http.new_header(
		key: .content_type
		value: 'text/plain'
	).join(headers_close)
)
const http_404 = http.new_response(
	status: .not_found
	body: '404 Not Found'
	header: http.new_header(
		key: .content_type
		value: 'text/plain'
	).join(headers_close)
)
const http_400 = http.new_response(
	status: .bad_request
	body: '400 Bad Request'
	header: http.new_header(
		key: .content_type
		value: 'text/plain'
	).join(headers_close)
)
const http_302 = http.new_response(
	status: .found
	body: '302 Found'
	header: headers_close
)
const headers_close = http.new_custom_header_from_map({
	'Server': 'veb'
}) or { panic('should never fail') }
const methods_with_form = [http.Method.post, .put, .patch]
const cors_safelisted_response_headers = [http.CommonHeader.cache_control, .content_language,
	.content_length, .content_type, .expires, .last_modified, .pragma].map(it.str())

fn controller #

fn controller[A, X](path string, mut global_app A) !&ControllerPath

controller generates a new Controller for the main app

fn controller_host #

fn controller_host[A, X](host string, path string, mut global_app A) &ControllerPath

controller_host generates a controller which only handles incoming requests from the host domain

fn cors #

fn cors[T](options CorsOptions) MiddlewareOptions[T]

cors handles cross-origin requests by adding Access-Control-* headers to a preflight request and validating the headers of a cross-origin request.

Example

app.use(veb.cors[Context](veb.CorsOptions{
    origins: ['*']
    allowed_methods: [.get, .head, .patch, .put, .post, .delete]
}))

fn decode_gzip #

fn decode_gzip[T]() MiddlewareOptions[T]

decode_gzip decodes the body of a gzip'ed HTTP request. Register this middleware before you do anything with the request body!

Example

app.use(veb.decode_gzip[Context]())

fn encode_gzip #

fn encode_gzip[T]() MiddlewareOptions[T]

encode_gzip adds gzip encoding to the HTTP Response body. This middleware does not encode files, if you return ctx.file(). Register this middleware as last!

Example

app.use(veb.encode_gzip[Context]())

fn no_result #

fn no_result() Result

no_result does nothing, but returns veb.Result. Only use it when you are sure a response will be send over the connection, or in combination with Context.takeover_conn

fn run #

fn run[A, X](mut global_app A, port int)

run - start a new veb server, listening to all available addresses, at the specified port

fn run_at #

fn run_at[A, X](mut global_app A, params RunParams) !

run_at - start a new veb server, listening only on a specific address host, at the specified port

Example

veb.run_at(new_app(), veb.RunParams{ host: 'localhost' port: 8099 family: .ip }) or { panic(err) }

interface StaticApp #

interface StaticApp {
mut:
	static_files      map[string]string
	static_mime_types map[string]string
	static_hosts      map[string]string
}

fn (FileResponse) done #

fn (mut fr FileResponse) done()

close the open file and reset the struct to its default values

type MiddlewareHandler #

type MiddlewareHandler[T] = fn (mut T) bool

fn (Middleware[T]) str #

fn (m &Middleware[T]) str() string

string representation of Middleware

fn (Middleware[T]) use #

fn (mut m Middleware[T]) use(options MiddlewareOptions[T])

use registers a global middleware handler

fn (Middleware[T]) route_use #

fn (mut m Middleware[T]) route_use(route string, options MiddlewareOptions[T])

route_use registers a middleware handler for a specific route(s)

type RawHtml #

type RawHtml = string

A type which doesn't get filtered inside templates

fn (RequestParams) request_done #

fn (mut params RequestParams) request_done(fd int)

reset request parameters for fd: reset content-length index and the http request

fn (StringResponse) done #

fn (mut sr StringResponse) done()

free the current string and reset the struct to its default values

enum RedirectType #

enum RedirectType {
	found              = int(http.Status.found)
	moved_permanently  = int(http.Status.moved_permanently)
	see_other          = int(http.Status.see_other)
	temporary_redirect = int(http.Status.temporary_redirect)
	permanent_redirect = int(http.Status.permanent_redirect)
}

struct Context #

@[heap]
struct Context {
mut:
	// veb will try to infer the content type base on file extension,
	// and if `content_type` is not empty the `Content-Type` header will always be
	// set to this value
	content_type string
	// done is set to true when a response can be sent over `conn`
	done bool
	// if true the response should not be sent and the connection should be closed
	// manually.
	takeover bool
	// how the http response should be handled by veb's backend
	return_type ContextReturnType = .normal
	return_file string
	// If the `Connection: close` header is present the connection should always be closed
	client_wants_to_close bool
pub:
	// TODO: move this to `handle_request`
	// time.ticks() from start of veb connection handle.
	// You can use it to determine how much time is spent on your request.
	page_gen_start i64
pub mut:
	req               http.Request
	custom_mime_types map[string]string
	// TCP connection to client. Only for advanced usage!
	conn &net.TcpConn = unsafe { nil }
	// Map containing query params for the route.
	// http://localhost:3000/index?q=vpm&order_by=desc => { 'q': 'vpm', 'order_by': 'desc' }
	query map[string]string
	// Multipart-form fields.
	form map[string]string
	// Files from multipart-form.
	files map[string][]http.FileData
	res   http.Response
	// use form_error to pass errors from the context to your frontend
	form_error                  string
	livereload_poll_interval_ms int = 250
}

The Context struct represents the Context which holds the HTTP request and response. It has fields for the query, form, files and methods for handling the request and response

fn (Context) before_request #

fn (mut ctx Context) before_request() Result

before_request is always the first function that is executed and acts as middleware

fn (Context) error #

fn (mut ctx Context) error(s string)

Set s to the form error

fn (Context) file #

fn (mut ctx Context) file(file_path string) Result

Response HTTP_OK with file as payload

fn (Context) get_custom_header #

fn (ctx &Context) get_custom_header(key string) !string

returns the request header data from the key

fn (Context) get_header #

fn (ctx &Context) get_header(key http.CommonHeader) !string

returns the request header data from the key

fn (Context) html #

fn (mut ctx Context) html(s string) Result

Response with payload and content-type text/html

fn (Context) ip #

fn (ctx &Context) ip() string

Returns the ip address from the current user

fn (Context) json #

fn (mut ctx Context) json[T](j T) Result

Response with json_s as payload and content-type application/json

fn (Context) json_pretty #

fn (mut ctx Context) json_pretty[T](j T) Result

Response with a pretty-printed JSON result

fn (Context) not_found #

fn (mut ctx Context) not_found() Result

returns a HTTP 404 response

fn (Context) ok #

fn (mut ctx Context) ok(s string) Result

Response HTTP_OK with s as payload

fn (Context) redirect #

fn (mut ctx Context) redirect(url string, params RedirectParams) Result

Redirect to an url

fn (Context) request_error #

fn (mut ctx Context) request_error(msg string) Result

send an error 400 with a message

fn (Context) send_response_to_client #

fn (mut ctx Context) send_response_to_client(mimetype string, response string) Result

send_response_to_client finalizes the response headers and sets Content-Type to mimetype and the response body to response

fn (Context) server_error #

fn (mut ctx Context) server_error(msg string) Result

send an error 500 with a message

fn (Context) set_content_type #

fn (mut ctx Context) set_content_type(mime string)

set_content_type sets the Content-Type header to mime

fn (Context) set_custom_header #

fn (mut ctx Context) set_custom_header(key string, value string) !

set a custom header on the response object

fn (Context) set_header #

fn (mut ctx Context) set_header(key http.CommonHeader, value string)

set a header on the response object

fn (Context) takeover_conn #

fn (mut ctx Context) takeover_conn()

takeover_conn prevents veb from automatically sending a response and closing the connection. You are responsible for closing the connection. In takeover mode if you call a Context method the response will be directly send over the connection and you can send multiple responses. This function is useful when you want to keep the connection alive and/or send multiple responses. Like with the SSE.

fn (Context) text #

fn (mut ctx Context) text(s string) Result

Response with s as payload and content-type text/plain

fn (Context) user_agent #

fn (ctx &Context) user_agent() string

user_agent returns the user-agent header for the current client

struct Controller #

struct Controller {
pub mut:
	controllers []&ControllerPath
}

fn (Controller) register_controller #

fn (mut c Controller) register_controller[A, X](path string, mut global_app A) !

register_controller adds a new Controller to your app

fn (Controller) register_host_controller #

fn (mut c Controller) register_host_controller[A, X](host string, path string, mut global_app A) !

register_controller adds a new Controller to your app

struct ControllerPath #

struct ControllerPath {
pub:
	path    string
	handler ControllerHandler = unsafe { nil }
pub mut:
	host string
}

struct CorsOptions #

@[params]
struct CorsOptions {
pub:
	// from which origin(s) can cross-origin requests be made; `Access-Control-Allow-Origin`
	origins []string @[required]
	// indicate whether the server allows credentials, e.g. cookies, in cross-origin requests.
	// ;`Access-Control-Allow-Credentials`
	allow_credentials bool
	// allowed HTTP headers for a cross-origin request; `Access-Control-Allow-Headers`
	allowed_headers []string = ['*']
	// allowed HTTP methods for a cross-origin request; `Access-Control-Allow-Methods`
	allowed_methods []http.Method
	// indicate if clients are able to access other headers than the "CORS-safelisted"
	// response headers; `Access-Control-Expose-Headers`
	expose_headers []string
	// how long the results of a preflight request can be cached, value is in seconds
	// ; `Access-Control-Max-Age`
	max_age ?int
}

CorsOptions is used to set CORS response headers. See https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/CORS#the_http_response_headers

fn (CorsOptions) set_headers #

fn (options &CorsOptions) set_headers(mut ctx Context)

set_headers adds the CORS headers on the response

fn (CorsOptions) validate_request #

fn (options &CorsOptions) validate_request(mut ctx Context) bool

validate_request checks if a cross-origin request is made and verifies the CORS headers. If a cross-origin request is invalid this method will send a response using ctx.

struct Middleware #

struct Middleware[T] {
mut:
	global_handlers       []voidptr
	global_handlers_after []voidptr
	route_handlers        []RouteMiddleware
	route_handlers_after  []RouteMiddleware
}

struct MiddlewareOptions #

@[params]
struct MiddlewareOptions[T] {
pub:
	handler fn (mut ctx T) bool @[required]
	after   bool
}

struct RedirectParams #

@[params]
struct RedirectParams {
pub:
	typ RedirectType
}

struct Result #

@[noinit]
struct Result {}

A dummy structure that returns from routes to indicate that you actually sent something to a user

struct RunParams #

@[params]
struct RunParams {
pub:
	// use `family: .ip, host: 'localhost'` when you want it to bind only to 127.0.0.1
	family               net.AddrFamily = .ip6
	host                 string
	port                 int  = 8080
	show_startup_message bool = true
	timeout_in_seconds   int  = 30
}

struct StaticHandler #

struct StaticHandler {
pub mut:
	static_files      map[string]string
	static_mime_types map[string]string
	static_hosts      map[string]string
}

StaticHandler provides methods to handle static files in your veb App

fn (StaticHandler) handle_static #

fn (mut sh StaticHandler) handle_static(directory_path string, root bool) !bool

handle_static is used to mark a folder (relative to the current working folder) as one that contains only static resources (css files, images etc). If root is set the mount path for the dir will be in '/' Usage:

os.chdir( os.executable() )?
app.handle_static('assets', true)

fn (StaticHandler) host_handle_static #

fn (mut sh StaticHandler) host_handle_static(host string, directory_path string, root bool) !bool

host_handle_static is used to mark a folder (relative to the current working folder) as one that contains only static resources (css files, images etc). If root is set the mount path for the dir will be in '/' Usage:

os.chdir( os.executable() )?
app.host_handle_static('localhost', 'assets', true)

fn (StaticHandler) mount_static_folder_at #

fn (mut sh StaticHandler) mount_static_folder_at(directory_path string, mount_path string) !bool

mount_static_folder_at - makes all static files in directory_path and inside it, available at http://server/mount_path For example: suppose you have called .mount_static_folder_at('/var/share/myassets', '/assets'), and you have a file /var/share/myassets/main.css . => That file will be available at URL: http://server/assets/main.css .

fn (StaticHandler) host_mount_static_folder_at #

fn (mut sh StaticHandler) host_mount_static_folder_at(host string, directory_path string, mount_path string) !bool

host_mount_static_folder_at - makes all static files in directory_path and inside it, available at http://host/mount_path For example: suppose you have called .host_mount_static_folder_at('localhost', '/var/share/myassets', '/assets'), and you have a file /var/share/myassets/main.css . => That file will be available at URL: http://localhost/assets/main.css .

fn (StaticHandler) serve_static #

fn (mut sh StaticHandler) serve_static(url string, file_path string) !

Serves a file static url is the access path on the site, file_path is the real path to the file, mime_type is the file type

fn (StaticHandler) host_serve_static #

fn (mut sh StaticHandler) host_serve_static(host string, url string, file_path string) !

Serves a file static url is the access path on the site, file_path is the real path to the file host is the host to serve the file from